A study of the behaviour of inclusions in the hot forging of
steel by means of three-dimensional FE-analysis

Chunhui Luo

Materials Forming, Department of Production Engineering and the Brinell Centre,
Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

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This paper describes the behaviour of inclusions during the hot forging of steel. The aim is to improve the understanding of the influence of deformed inclusions on the product properties. Based on the finite element method (FEM), the movement and deformation of inclusions were analysed by three-dimensional forward and backward tracing schemes. The influence of stress-state on void formation near the hard inclusions was also examined. These themes were exemplified through a 3D forging simulation of an intermediate shaft.



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